Midnight Club 3: DUB Edition
All cities and cars in arcade mode:
Enter roadtrip or crosscountry at the
Enter ontheroad at the cheat menu.
Enter urbansprawl at the cheat menu. Note: This
will also unlock all cities in arcade mode.
Increase car mass in arcade mode:
Enter hyperagro at the cheat menu.
Argo special move:
Enter dfens at the cheat menu.
Zone special move:
Enter allin at the cheat menu.
Roar special move:
Enter ro4r or Rjnr at the cheat menu.
Enter haveyouseenthisbody at the cheat menu.
Enter trythisathome at the cheat menu.
Enter getheadm at the cheat menu.
Yellow smile head:
Enter getheadj at the cheat menu.
Enter getheadk at the cheat menu. [Screenshot]
Enter getheadl at the cheat menu.
Enter getheadn at the cheat menu.
and Neil Rodgers.
Add $1 to career money total:
Enter kubmir at the cheat menu.
Note: If you have a controller with an auto-fire feature, you
can use this to get more money easily. Go to the cheat codes menu
and type in "kubmir". Then, press R2 and set
the word "kubmir" to the top slot. Next, set R2
and X to auto-fire. Tape down the X and R2
and allow the game to remain in that state.
Subtract $1 from career money total:
Enter rimbuk at the cheat menu.
1949 Chevy Fleetline:
Win the Bad Boyz tournament in Detroit.
1957 Chevy Bel Air:
Win the San Diego Stage tournament.
1968 Corvette Stingray:
Win the All American Royalty races.
Atlanta police car:
Defeat each of the street racers in Atlanta.
Detroit City Tournament
Cadillac Escalade ESV:
Win the second San Diego tournament.
Cadillac Escalade EXT Dub Edition:
Win the Hotlanta tournament located in Atlanta. You
also will be rewarded $10,000.
Get a 100% game completion.
Chrysler 300C "DUB edition":
Win the Balboa Park tournament in San Diego.
Chrysler ME Four-Twelve:
Win all sixteen Exotic races in career mode.
Detroit police car:
Defeat Caesar (for the second time in Detroit), and
Win the Hotlanta tournament.
El Diablo Rigid:
Defeat Vanessa three times in career mode.
Gembella Turbo Coupe:
Win the first purple trophy that appears on your map.
There are five races. Note: This is only for the Tokyo Challenge.
Hotmatch Cuevito bike:
Win all four of Phil's races in career mode.
Hotmatch Skully bike:
Win all the Chopper of America Bike Club races.
Kawasaki Ninja ZX 12R:
Win all Sport Bikes club races.
Win the U.S. Champs Series.
Win the San Diego City tournament.
Mercedes Benz CL 55 AMG:
Win all the SUV/Truck club races.
Mercedes Benz G55 AMG:
Win the Big Playas.
Mercedes Benz SL55 AMG "DUB Edition":
Win all the San Diego Luxury Rollers races.
Nissan 02 Skyline:
Win all Tuner club races.
Kawasaki 1000 police bike:
Complete race 14 of Sport Bikes and race 15 of Choppers.
San Diego police car:
Defeat all the street racers in San Diego.
Collect twelve Rockstar Games logos to unlock the "Flags"
option in your garage.
Rockstar Games license plates:
Collect twenty four Rockstar Games logos.
Race starter riders:
Collect thirty six Rockstar Games logos.
Vito bike rider costume:
Defeat Vito in San Diego.
Phil bike rider costume:
Defeat Phil in San Diego.
Naomi bike rider costume:
Defeat Naomi in Atlanta.
Agro for luxury sedans:
Win race 3 of 14 from the Luxury Rollers Racing Club.
Agro for SUV/Truck:
Win race 3 of 15 from Big Playas Racing Club.
Car rims set 1:
Defeat Carlos in 3 of 3 races in San Diego.
Car rims set 2:
Defeat Vanessa in 3 of 3 races in San Diego.
Car rims set 3:
Defeat Dre in 3 of 3 races in Atlanta.
Car rims set 4:
Defeat Lamont in 3 of 3 races in Atlanta.
Car rims set 5:
Defeat Roy in 3 of 3 races in Detroit.
Car Rims set 6:
Defeat Caesar in 3 of 3 Races in Detroit.
Car rims set 7:
Defeat Caesar the second time in 3 of 3 Races in Detroit.
Defeat Naomi in 3 of 3 races in Atlanta.
Defeat Spider in 3 of 3 races in Detriot.
Win race 12 of 15 from Choppers of America Racing Club.
Color shift paint:
Defeat Roy in 4 of 4 races in Atlanta.
Defeat Bishop in 3 of 3 races in San Diego.
Defeat Roy the second time in 3 of 3 races in Atlanta.
Luxury sedan exhausts:
Win race 1 of 14 from the Luxury Rollers Racing Club.
Luxury sedan front bumpers:
Win race 5 of 14 from the Luxury Rollers Racing Club.
Luxury sedan rear bumpers:
Win race 9 of 14 from the Luxury Rollers Racing Club.
Luxury sedan side upgrades:
Win race 7 of 14 from the Luxury Rollers Racing Club.
Luxury sedan spoilers:
Win race 11 of 14 from the Luxury Rollers Racing Club.
Defeat Vanessa in 3 of 3 races in San Diego.
Muscle car exhausts:
Win race 1 of 15 from the American Royalty Racing Club.
Muscle car front bumpers:
Win race 7 of 15 from the American Royalty Racing Club.
Muscle car hoods:
Win race 13 of 15 from the American Royalty Racing
Muscle car rear bumpers:
Win race 11 of 15 from the American Royalty Racing
Muscle car rear upgrades:
Win race 5 of 15 from the American Royalty Racing Club.
Muscle car side upgrades:
Win race 9 of 15 from the American Royalty Racing Club.
Defeat Vanessa the second time in 3 of 3 races in San
Rider outfits set 1:
Win race 8 of 15 from Choppers of America Racing Club.
Rider outfits set 2:
Win race 8 of 14 from Original Riders Racing Club.
Win race 1 of 14 from Original Riders Racing Club.
Roar for choppers:
Win race 3 of 15 from Choppers of America Racing Club.
Roar for muscle cars:
Win race 3 of 15 from the American Royalty Racing Club.
Defeat Leo in 3 of 3 races in Detriot.
Defeat Vito in 3 of 3 races in Atlanta.
Defeat Kioshi in 3 of 3 races in Detriot.
Win race 1 of 15 from Big Playas Racing Club.
SUV/truck front bumpers:
Win race 5 of 15 from Big Playas Racing Club.
SUV/truck front grills:
Win race 12 of 15 from Big Playas Racing Club.
Win race 10 of 15 from Big Playas Racing Club.
SUV/truck rear bumpers:
Win race 7 of 15 from Big Playas Racing Club.
SUV/truck rear upgrades:
Win race 11 of 15 from Big Playas Racing Club.
SUV/truck side upgrades:
Win race 6 of 15 from Big Playas Racing Club.
Win race 2 of 15 from Big Playas Racing Club.
Defeat Dre in 3 of 3 races in Atlanta.
Win race 1 of 13 from the UnDefeatable Street Racing
Tuner front bumpers:
Win race 6 of 13 from the UnDefeatable Street Racing
Win race 9 of 13 from the UnDefeatable Street Racing
Tuner rear bumpers:
Win race 8 of 13 from the UnDefeatable Street Racing
Tuner side upgrades:
Win race 7 of 13 from the UnDefeatable Street Racing
Win race 10 of 13 from the UnDefeatable Street Racing
Win race 2 of 13 from the UnDefeatable Street Racing
Defeat Cheng in 3 of 3 races in Atlanta.
Zone for exotics:
Win race 3 of 16 from Invitation Only Racing Club.
Zone for sport coupes:
Win race 3 of 14 from the Luxury Rollers Racing Club.
Zone for sportbikes:
Win race 3 of 14 from Original Riders Racing Club.
Zone for tuners:
Win race 3 of 13 from the UnDefeatable Street Racing
Hint: Rockstar Games logos:
There are twelve Rockstar Games logos hidden throughout
each level in the game.
Atlanta: When you get out of the garage immediately turn to the
right. You will see a glass. Crash through to find the logo.
Atlanta: Drive to the bottom of the map. Look for a building with
a huge globe. There is a logo that reads "Nitro Cola".
A logo is located directly under that.
and Brazman .
Atlanta: Drive to the graveyard in the south of the map (near
the highway). There is a logo at the east part of the building
Atlanta: Follow the highway until you reach a place with some
construction work. Drive off the highway (to your right side if
driving north), and look for a tank station. Follow the building
around and you will se a ramp/road going up. Get some speed, fly
over, and you will land on the roof of building. The logo should
be in front of you.
Atlanta: On the freeway at the top right-hand side of the map,
there is an overpass. There is a logo under the overpass on the
right-hand side, if you are traveling north.
Atlanta: Follow the highway south of the construction until you
see a building with a yellow sign on the side that reads "DJ
Smalls" on your right. It will be located rather low -- you
would be better off traveling against traffic. It is just before
you go into the tunnel part of the highway. Drive up towards that
sign and look to your left across the highway. There will be a
building with a ramp that goes down inside it. Note: Do not go
down. Go around this building and find a ramp that leads up. Go
up it and look around up top for the logo.
Atlanta: Follow the building where you garage is located. Drive
through the skeleton's mouth and you will find a logo
Atlanta: While looking at the shipping station, turn left and
keep going until you find a park-like area. There will be a ramp
at a corner of it. Hit the ramp at full speed, and after you land
on the building, continue forward and jump over to the next building.
You should see an open area to the left. The logo should be located
Atlanta: Go to the park-like area where there is a ramp in the
corner. Approach the ramp slowly. Drive just over the back of
it and you should find a Rockstar logo.
Detroit: Look for Comerica Park. Near there is a building with
some glass that you can drive through. Inside you will find a
Detroit: Look for a building with the Detriot Atrium. Drive through
the glass to find another Rockstar logo.
Detroit: There is a Rockstar logo near the near the lower left
part of the map. Look for a building with some graffiti with a
pink bear and the name Kool Kid Snirk. There is a building to
the right of it. The logo is inside. Enter the building and turn
to see it.
Detroit: Near the lower part of the map, look for some subway
tracks that are overhead. Then, look for a ramp that leads up
to the subway platform. Drive on the track and you should see
a Rockstar logo near a building with a red Maxim billboard sign
Detroit: Look for the big pentagon-shaped place on the map (at
the center). Look to the south of that. There will be a small
open area. Look to the left of that to find the big building labled
"Expo". Go inside the glass to find a logo.
San Diego: Find the aircraft carrier and locate the ramp to jump
onto the flight deck. One logo can be found here, on the ramp.
The Notorious GLD.
San Diego: There is a logo behind the baseball stadium. Follow
the highway to the back of the stadium.. You will then se a small
ramp. Drive up to find the logo.
San Diego: There is also a logo at the top deck of the aircraft
San Diego: Drive to the beach at the top left of the map. Follow
the beach until you see a small tunnel.. There is a logo in there.
San Diego: At the lower left of the map (near the aircraft carrier),
follow the coastline. There is no road near by. Follow the large
building, and you will find a little road that leads up to a roof.
Turn left and you will see the logo.
San Diego: Almost at the lower right corner at the map, there
is a huge parking garage. When you are on the streets, drive to
the bottom left corner of the building. Drive up the ramp, turn
left, and drive through the windows to find another logo.
San Diego: To the far left of the map at the rollercoaster, drive
up the ramp that is located at the north of the rollercoaster.
Ride to find the logo.
San Diego: Look at the map. Somewhere near the top right corner
is a tunnel that goes through a building . There is a logo in
San Diego: There is a long and short building. In the middle of
it is a flight of stairs. Drive up it to find the logo.
Hint: San Diego: Baseball stadium:
To get to the baseball stadium, get your map fixed
then go all the way down to the bottom of it. While looking at
your map, press Up and look to the right on the map. Follow
the road that the strange shape is on to reach the stadium.
Hint: San Diego: Get on the aircraft carrier
Go to the back of the aircraft carrier. There should
be a opening. Go in it. There should be a ramp. Go up it and you
will be on the top deck of the aircraft carrier
Hint: Easy cheats:
To use cheats easier, enter the code text, but do not
accept it. Select the "Hotkey" button and go to "Set".
Then, select one of those phrases. Your code should now be accessible
through hotkeys. This is especially useful with the code to add
$1 to your career total.
Hint: Easy money:
In a tournament race, do not finish the last race in
first place, but in second or third place. Note: Second place
is worth more money. Do this as many times as desired for fast
In the middle of career mode, buy any car (for example, a '64
Impala). Fix it up nicely with level 2 performance parts, etc.,
which is worth $43,500. Make a duplicate of the car in the "Manage
Vehicle" menu. Make at least five duplicates, but make sure
to change some of the letters or numbers of each duplicate. When
all of the duplicates are made, choose the duplicates and select
"Sell The Vehicle". After selling these versions, you
will have easy money in career mode.
When you defeat the Big Playas Club you will win a Mercedes G55
AMG. If you want to boost your bank, sell it. With no performance
parts and no fancy upgrades, it is still worth over $90,000.
Win the Chrysler 300C and sell it for about $50,000. Then, buy
the Lotus for $33,000 and put a $14,000 engine upgrade on it.
Enter some races and use it to win.
Hint: Easy wins:
This trick will work best if you can ride a motorcycle
well. To defeat a street racer like Roy, Ceasar, etc., enable
the the "Roar special move" code and race them. A motorcycle
can turn corners faster than cars. It will be possible to beat
them to the finish line by ten seconds. If they somehow get in
front of you, use roar to make them lose control.
To do a burnout, hold Handbrake and hold Gas
at the beginning of a race. If the handbrake is released at the
proper moment, you will get a slight boost.
To do a "deathspin" burnout, do a normal burnout with
one exemption; hold the Left Analog-stick in the
direction of one of your opponents. Your car will spin around
and hit the front of your opponent's car. If you want to hit the
front of the car on your right, hold the Left-Analog stick
Right. The back of your car will go to the left, but will
hit the front of the car on your right. You will not only start
out ahead of the pack, but you will also get a boost from the
car behind you. Be careful not to spin too much or you might start
out backwards. Note: Deathspin does not work with sport bikes.
To do the "jump the gun" burnout, hold the Left Analog-stick
Forward + R1 (parking brake) without holding X
at the countdown. Just before the counter hits "1",
hold X. Your car will shoot forward before anyone else's.
Release R1 when the counter is at "Go". You will
not have a full turbo meter, but you will be ahead of everyone.
Hint: Agro special move:
This move is unlocked in career mode and is only available
for SUVs, trucks, and luxury sedans. The Agro meter is charged
by hitting traffic and sidewalk clutter. When fully charged, Agro
can be activated (or used at a later time) by pressing L3.
Agro allows you to plow through the competition, swatting aside
any car that gets in your way.
Hint: Roar special move:
This move is unlocked in career mode, and is available
to muscle cars and choppers. The Roar meter is charged through
successful drifting. When the special move meter is fully charged,
Roar can be activated immediately or saved for later use. When
activated by L3, Roar sends out an engine rev so loud that
traffic will do anything it can to get out of the way.
Hint: Zone special move:
This move is unlocked in career mode and available
to import and exotic cars, as well as sportbikes. The Zone meter
is charged by driving cleanly and avoiding collisions. Collisions
will prevent the meter from charging. It is activated by pressing
L3. Zone simulates the adrenaline rush of racing at insane
speeds by slowing down the world around you to a crawl, allowing
you to squeeze around tight turns and get through narrow spaces
Hint: Slipstream turbo:
When drafting someone (sharing the air from the car
in front), you will see a meter on the right-hand side of the
screen fill up. When it is red and starts beeping, press Nitrous
and you will get a sudden boost, allowing you to leave your competition
in the dust.
Hint: Weave through traffic:
When racing, turn left or right and press Circle.
Your car will go on its side and can weave through traffic.
Hint: Drive on two wheels:
Press L1 and the D-pad Left or
Right. Your car will pop up on the left or right side,
and you can drive on two wheels.
With tuner cars with the Zone special move, find a
big jump (for example, the roller coaster jumps in San Diego).
Get to at least 150 mph and just before reaching the end of the
jump, activate the Zone. Once in the air, hold L1 + Analog-stick
Up. If done correctly, you will perform a frontflip.
When you drive with your hydraulics active, press L1
+ R1 to perform wheelies.
Hint: Wheelies, endos, drive on two wheels,
When on a bike, hold Circle and press the Analog-stick
Down to make the bike do a wheelie, while pressing the Analog-stick
Forward will make it do an endo (stoppie). Tilting the Analog-stick
Left or Right will decrease its turning radius.
In cars or trucks you will drive on two wheels. Note: Wheelies
and endos will not work on choppers as well as on the sport bikes.
Hint: Go under cars:
This trick only works with exotic cars that are set
low to the ground. When in the air coming off a jump, press Circle
+ Analog-stick Up to angle the car downwards. If you hit
a car, you will go under it without losing any speed. This is
very useful in races.
Hint: Easy boost:
Get on an opponent's tail until the meter fills up
on the right side of the screen then press Nitrous.
When someone peels out in front of you on a straight road, use
your nitrous when he is done and get behind him. Your turbo boost
will rise. Then, tap Nitrous again and you will have an
ultra boost. This works best with cars that have "Roar".
Darren C. Sutton.
Go behind a car and use the slipstream for a charge up. Then after
you use it, immediately use nitrous to add an extra boost and
speed up to first.
Hint: Burnout boost:
Hold Hand Brake and Gas when getting
ready for the race. After the screen focuses on your car, release
Hand Brake. If done correctly, when it is time to go the
meter on the right will fill up.
Hint: Higher jumps from ramps:
If you have a car that has hydraulics and are about
to go off a ramp, as soon as you are on the first part of the
ramp press Down. Then, when you are just about to launch
off the ramp press R1 + R2 + L1 +L2.
If timed correctly, you should go slightly higher and farther
Hint: Faster street bike acceleration:
With any street motorcycle, use weight control and
hold back to wheelie. You will accelerate much faster, but will
only be maxed at about 175 mph. Once you go down you will go slower,
and then reach 200+ mph.
Hint: Sport Bike front flip and back flip:
Get a sport bike and a full tank of Zone (with nitrous
would be better). Go to Detroit, then go over to the draw bridge.
Go down the road a short distance a so that you can still see
the bridge going up and down. Do a burnout, and when the bridge
goes up release the emergency brake. Hold X and/or use
nitrous. When you reach the top of the bridge, use Zone and hold
L1 + Left Analog-stick Forward or Away.
Keep holding that position until you are flat with the road or
Hint: Weight transfer and air tricks:
When flying through the air press, hold Circle
and tilt the Analog-stick in whatever direction that applies
to the situation. For example, if you are going to land on the
rear, tilt the Analog-stick Forward to level out. Some
cars have the ability to do spins, flips, and spinning flips.
Note: Bikes and trucks cannot do the aerial stunts. Tuners are
recommended for these stunts, though weight transfer works for
Hint: Tuning your car, truck, or bike:
While in cruise mode, press Start to pause game
play. Then, go to "Options", then to "Tune Your
Vehicle". There are three settings, "Drift Factor",
"Traction", and "Friction Bias". For all the
drifters out there, set the "Drift" bar all the way
to the right, "Traction" to the left, and leave "Friction
Bias" alone and it will slide like it is on ice. Also, turning
and nailing the gas from a complete stop will make it do drifting
donuts requiring no turning after about three times around.
Hint: Using hydraulics:
Press Down to get into the hydraulics setup.
You can then press L1, R1, L2, and R2
to use your switches.
Bouncing: Keep tapping D-pad Down.
Driving on three wheel or other motions: Get your car onto the
wheels you want and use the Right Analog-stick to drive
backward and forward. Be careful; if your are in three wheel motion
decide to lift up the front
right wheel from the ground while driving, your car will veer
to the right (realistically).
Hint: Hydraulic poses:
3 Wheel: Press L2 + R1, or R2 + L1.
To drive, press X and Square for brake/reverse.
West Coast (front up): Press L1 + R1.
East Coast (rear up): Press R2 + L2.
Side to Side: To raise the left side press L1 + L2.
To raising the right side press R1 + R2.
Pancake (hop in place): Press R2 + L2 and L1
+ R1 to hop.
Hint: Preview car:
To preview your car, enter the pause menu and move
the Right Analog-stick around to circle your car. Use R1
and L1 to zoom. This also works in the garage. Note: Entering
the pause menu is not required in the garage.
Hint: Exotic cars:
After you unlock Class A cars, you may notice that
the really fast cars are $250,000 each. In order to get that money,
sell all of your other cars. The Cadillac Escalade EXT is worth
Hint: Recommended cars:
Use the Chrysler 300C for the first autocross race.
Use the following cars to defeat the clubs.
Luxury Rollers: Mercedes SL500
Tuners: Viper GTS R
Muscle: 81 Camaro Z28
Choppers: El Diablo Rigid
Sport Bikes: Ducati 999R
SUV/Truck: Dodge Ram SRT 10
Exotix: McLaren F1 LM
Hint: 1970 Dodge Daytona (look-alike):
Use the following trick to make a 1969 Dodge Charger
R/t resemble a 1970 Dodge Daytona. Drop it down on 20's, change
the front bumper from stock to 10 tuner bumper. Then, add the
5 tuner spoiler. Keep the manufacturer's stripe at the end of
car then paint and customize as desired.
Hint: Car list:
||1978 Monte Carlo||$20,750
||1957 Bel Air||$37,000|
|C/Tuners||Mitsubishi||Lancer Evo 8
||1996 Impala SS||$35,750|
||1970 El Camino||$37,250|
|C/Muscle Cars||Dodge||1969 Charger R/T
|C/Choppers||West Coast Choppers
|C/Choppers||West Coast Choppers
||El Diablo Soft Tail||$125,000
|C/Luxury Sedans||AMG||CL 55
||2004 Monster S4R||$13,495
||1969 Camaro Z28||$49,900|
||1981 Camaro Z28||$54,000|
||1968 Corvette Stingray||$56,000
|B/Choppers||West Coast Choppers
||El Diablo Rigid||$100,000
||Ninja ZX 12R||$10,999|
|Specialty||1996 Impala SS
||San Diego police car||$0|
|Specialty||1996 Impala SS
||Atlanta police car||$0|
|Specialty||1996 Impala SS
||Detroit police car||$0|
Hint: Pedestrians look at your car:
Drive up to a pedestrian (be careful not to run them
over). Wait a little while. They will start to admire your car.
Some will even go down on their knees to look at your rims. Others
will go around the whole car to look at the entire thing.
Hint: Peeled look for Chrysler ME 412:
Go to the manufacture's vinyls and get the one that
looks like a grid. Change the color to where the lines are green
and the squares are black. It should look like the computer graphics
are peeling off.
Hint: Big explosion:
Find a gas station and drive into one of the pumps.
There should be an amazing explosion and you car will be reset
in perfect condition.
Hint: Snow truck collides with police car:
On Race 13 out of 14 in the Luxury Sedan races in Detroit,
press Start before the race begins. A police car will get
plowed off the road by a snow truck.
Glitch: Free paint:
When you buy a car, select the paint you want before
you buy the car by using R2 and L2.
Glitch: Van U-turn:
In San Diego, on the race for the Unbeatable Street
Racers for Tuners, at the starting line there will sometimes be
a van coming straight toward you and the other cars at the starting
line. During the countdown, the van turns around on its two front
wheels and goes the opposite direction.
Glitch: Clearing the road:
In the Luxury Rollers Club race Weave, at the starting
line there is a police car heading towards the racers. Before
the race starts, a big orange plow truck will make a turn onto
the same road and smash the police car off to the side of the
road. The road will be cleared just in time for the end of the
Glitch: Throw traffic into the air:
Enable the "Increase car mass in arcade mode"
and "No damage" codes. Go to arcade mode and select
"Cruise". Note: You must unlock the special move Roar
first. Choose a muscle car and go to any of the three cities.
Slide around the city for a little while to build up your Roar
meter. Once you have one or more units of the roar meter filled,
find a large cluster of traffic. Use your special Roar move and
it will "throw" the cluster of traffic high into the
air. Note:-This does not work on city buses because of their large
size and weight.
Glitch: Traffic cars act like trolleys:
In San Diego, there are trolley tracks located about
50 yards from the shipping garage at the docks in Career mode.
Normally, traffic cars drive directly over the tracks. However,
if you can nudge the traffic cars gently enough that they can
still drive away directly on the train tracks, the traffic cars
will drive on the tracks as if they were trolleys. It is very
humorous to witness the trolley smash the traffic cars off the
tracks. Note: This will work with any traffic vehicle in San Diego
so long as they are not parked. This may require several attempts
as most traffic cars will not drive if the player hits them too
hard and positioning the traffic cars directly on a set of tracks
can prove difficult.
Action Replay, Code Breaker, and GameShark codes
Copyright © 2005,
2006 Al Amaloo. All rights reserved.